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Max Blood Test PLUS

Original price was: £1,115.00.Current price is: £1,025.00.

Covering 90 biomarkers assessing multiple body systems. Checking glucose regulation, kidney health, electrolytes, enzyme activity, metabolic health, liver & gallbladder health, iron health, lipids, thyroid, inflammation, vitamin & minerals, hormonal health, immune health and full blood count.

Plus private consultation with a qualified Nutritional Therapist (MSc) 

  • Functional health report delivered to you via our secure practitioner portal.
  • Health improvement plan and supplement protocol delivered to you via our secure practitioner platform.
  • Health questionnaire to be completed with signs, symptoms, medications etc.
  • Research undertaken from questionnaire, blood chemistry analysis and medications to check for contraindictations.
  • Individual consultation online (1 hour) with Sonia Hollis to go through your report and suggested health improvement plan.

Please see below for the total breakdown of all included biomarkers in each test.  

 

Category:

Covering 71 biomarkers assessing multiple body systems. Checking glucose regulation, kidney health, electrolytes, enzyme activity, metabolic health, liver & gallbladder health, iron health, lipids, thyroid, inflammation, vitamin & minerals, hormonal health, immune health and full blood count. 

Covering 90 biomarkers assessing multiple body systems. Checking glucose regulation, kidney health, electrolytes, enzyme activity, metabolic health, liver & gallbladder health, iron health, lipids, thyroid, inflammation, vitamin & minerals, hormonal health, immune health and full blood count. 

Covering 103 biomarkers assessing multiple body systems. Checking glucose regulation, kidney health, electrolytes, enzyme activity, metabolic health, liver & gallbladder health, iron health, lipids, thyroid, inflammation, vitamin & minerals, hormonal health, immune health and full blood count.

Full Biomarker List

    Glucose Regulation

Blood glucose levels are regulated by several important hormones including insulin and glucagon. Glucose is also directly formed in the body from carbohydrate digestion and from the conversion in the liver of other sugars, such as fructose, and fats into glucose. Increased blood glucose is associated with type 1 & 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance. Decreased levels of blood glucose are associated with hypoglycemia.

The Hemoglobin A1C test measures the amount of glucose that combines with hemoglobin to form glycohemoglobin during the normal lifespan of a red blood cell, which is about 120 days. The amount of glycohemoglobin formed is in direct proportion to the amount of glucose present in the bloodstream during the 120-day red blood cell lifespan. In the presence of high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) the amount of hemoglobin that is glycosylated to form glycohemoglobin increases and the hemoglobin A1C level will be high. Hemoglobin A1C is used primarily to monitor long-term blood glucose control and to help determine therapeutic options for treatment and management. 

Insulin is the hormone released by the pancreas in response to rising blood glucose levels and decreases blood glucose by transporting glucose into the cells. Often people lose their ability to utilise insulin to effectively drive blood glucose into energy-producing cells. This is commonly known as insulin resistance and is associated with increasing levels of insulin in the blood. Excess insulin is associated with greater risks of heart attack, stroke, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. 

C-Peptide is used as an indicator for insulin production from the pancreas. It can help assess whether high blood glucose is due to reduced insulin output from the pancreas or due to reduced glucose uptake by the cells, a condition called insulin resistance.

 Kidney Health 

BUN or Blood Urea Nitrogen reflects the ratio between the production and clearance of urea in the body. Urea is formed almost entirely by the liver from both protein metabolism and protein digestion.The amount of urea excreted as BUN varies with the amount of dietary protein intake. Increased BUN may be due to increased production of urea by the liver or decreased excretion by the kidney. BUN is a test used predominantly to measure kidney function, where it will be increased. An increased BUN is also associated with dehydration and hypochlorhydria. A low BUN is associated with malabsorption and a diet low in protein.

Creatinine is produced primarily from the contraction of the muscle and is removed by the kidneys. A disorder of the kidney and/or urinary tract will reduce the excretion of creatinine and thus raise blood serum levels. Creatinine is traditionally used with BUN to assess for impaired kidney function. Elevated levels can also indicate dysfunction in the prostate. 

This test measures the amount of creatinine in your blood and/or urine. Creatinine is a waste product produced in your muscles from the breakdown of a compound called creatine. Creatine is part of the cycle that produces energy needed to contract your muscles. Both creatine and creatinine are produced by the body at a relatively constant rate. Almost all creatinine is excreted by the kidneys, so blood levels are a good measure of how well your kidneys are working. The quantity produced depends on the sex, size or age of the person and their muscle mass. For this reason, creatinine concentrations will be slightly higher in men than in women and children

The BUN/Creatinine is a ratio between the BUN and Creatinine levels. An increased level is associated with renal dysfunction. A decreased level is associated with a diet low in protein.

The eGFR is a calculated estimate of the kidney’s Glomerular Filtration Rate. It uses 4 variables: age, race, creatinine levels and gender to estimate kidney function. Levels below 90 are an indication of a mild loss of kidney function. Levels below 60 indicate a moderate loss of kidney function and may require a visit to a renal specialist for further evaluation.

 Prostate Health

The acronym PSA stands for prostate-specific antigen, the most abundant protein synthesized in the prostate gland. PSA – Total is currently used as a biological marker to detect disease related to the prostate. Elevated levels of PSA – Total are associated with the following conditions: an enlarged prostate (Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy or BPH), prostate inflammation (prostatitis), prostate cancer and there is also evidence that it can be elevated in urinary tract infection. It’s important to remember that elevated levels of PSA – Total may not necessarily signal prostate cancer, and prostate cancer may not always be accompanied by an expression of PSA. 

 Electrolytes

Sodium is an important blood electrolyte and functions to maintain osmotic pressure, acid-base balance, aids in nerve impulse transmission, as well as renal, cardiac, and adrenal functions. Increased sodium is most often due to dehydration (sweating, diarrhea, vomiting, polyuria, etc.) or adrenal stress. Decreased sodium levels are associated with adrenal insufficiency and edema. 

Potassium is one of the main electrolytes in the body. Due to the critical functions of potassium for human metabolism and physiology, it is essential for the body to maintain optimal serum levels even though a small concentration is found outside of the cell. Potassium levels should always be viewed in relation to the other electrolytes. Potassium concentration is greatly influenced by adrenal hormones. As such, potassium levels can be a marker for adrenal dysfunction.

Chloride plays an important role in human physiology. The amount of serum chloride is carefully regulated by the kidneys. Chloride is involved in regulating the acid-base balance in the body. Increased levels are associated with metabolic acidosis and decreased levels are associated with metabolic alkalosis. Chloride is an important molecule in the production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach so decreased levels are associated with hypochlorhydria.

Carbon Dioxide is a measure of bicarbonate in the blood. CO2, as bicarbonate, is available for acid-base balancing. Bicarbonate neutralizes metabolic acids in the body. Elevated levels of CO2 are associated with metabolic alkalosis and hypochlorhydria. Decreased levels are associated with metabolic acidosis.  

The sodium and potassium levels are under the influence of aldosterone and cortisol, both hormones produced by the adrenal glands. Aldosterone causes the body to retain sodium by causing a decreased excretion of sodium from the kidney. Aldosterone has the opposite effect on potassium causing the body to excrete potassium by increasing the excretion of potassium from the kidney.  

 Enzyme

Amylase is an enzyme that converts starch into sugar. It is produced primarily in the salivary glands and pancreas. Levels will increase with inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis) or salivary glands. Low levels of amylase are seen with pancreatic insufficiency, a dysfunction of the pancreas leading to a decreased output of pancreatic enzymes.

Lipase is an enzyme involved in fat digestion. It is produced primarily in the pancreas.Levels will increase with inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis) and gallbladder dysfunction. Low levels may be seen with pancreatic insufficiency, a dysfunction of the pancreas leading to a decreased output of pancreatic enzymes. 

 Metabolic Health

The anion gap is the measurement of the difference between the sum of the sodium and potassium levels and the sum of the serum CO2/bicarbonate and chloride levels. Increased levels are associated with thiamine deficiency and metabolic acidosis.  

Uric acid is produced as an end-product of purine, nucleic acid,and nucleoprotein metabolism. Levels can increase due to over-production by the body or decreased excretion by the kidneys. Increased uric acid levels are associated with gout, atherosclerosis, oxidative stress, arthritis, kidney dysfunction, circulatory disorders and intestinal permeability. Decreased levels are associated with detoxification issues, molybdenum deficiency, B12/folate anemia, and copper deficiency.

Creatine Kinase (CPK) is a group of enzymes found in skeletal muscle, the brain, and the heart muscle. Damage to one or more of these tissues will liberate CPK into the serum thus raising serum levels. Decreased levels of Creatine Kinase may be seen in the chronic stage of muscle atrophy. Increased levels of CPK are associated with muscle damage or breakdown, damage to the heart muscle as in an acute MI, heavy exercise, and brain damage or inflammation.

Total serum protein is composed of albumin and total globulin. Conditions that affect albumin and total globulin readings will impact the total protein value. A decreased total protein can be an indication of malnutrition, digestive dysfunction due to HCl need, or liver dysfunction. Malnutrition leads to a decreased total protein level in the serum primarily from lack of available essential amino acids. An increased total protein is most often due to dehydration. 

 

Albumin is one of the major blood proteins. Produced primarily in the liver, Albumin plays a major role in water distribution and serves as a transport protein for hormones and various drugs. Albumin levels are affected by digestive dysfunction and a decreased albumin can be an indication of malnutrition, digestive dysfunction due to HCl need (hypochlorhydria), or liver dysfunction. Malnutrition leads to a decreased albumin level in the serum primarily from lack of available essential amino acids. Decreased albumin can also be a strong indicator of oxidative stress and excess free radical activity. Increased albumin is a strong indicator of dehydration. 

 

Total Globulin is composed of individual globulin fractions called alpha 1, alpha 2, beta, and gamma fractions. The total globulin level is greatly impacted by concomitant increases or decreases in one or more of these fractions. Globulins function to transport substances in the blood and constitute the antibody system, clotting proteins, and complement. Globulins are produced in the liver, the reticuloendothelial system, and other tissues.Care must be taken when making a diagnosis based upon the total globulin alone because total globulin is composed of 4 different fractions. Inflammatory, degenerative, or infectious processes are associated with increased production of antibodies.

The albumin/globulin ratio is the ratio between the albumin and total globulin levels. A decreased ratio is associated with liver dysfunction and immune activation from infectious or inflammatory processes. An increased Albumin/Globulin ratio is uncommon and is usually due to dehydration. 

 Liver & Gallbladder Health 

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a group of isoenzymes that originate in the bone, liver, intestines, skin, and placenta. It has a maximal activity at a pH of 9.0-10.0, hence the term alkaline phosphatase. Decreased levels of ALP have been associated with zinc deficiency. Elevated levels of ALP in the serum can occur with any liver dysfunction, it is especially sensitive to any type of obstruction in the biliary tract, both intra and extra-hepatic, both severe and mild.

AST is an enzyme present in highly metabolic tissues such as skeletal muscle, the liver, the heart, kidney and lungs. This enzyme is at times released into the bloodstream following cell damage or destruction. AST levels will be increased when liver cells and/or heart muscle cells and/or skeletal muscle cells are damaged. The cause of the damage must be investigated. Low levels are associated with a B6 deficiency.

ALT is an enzyme present in high concentrations in the liver and to a lesser extent skeletal muscle, the heart, and kidney. ALT will be liberated into the bloodstream following cell damage or destruction. Any condition or situation that causes damage to the hepatocytes will cause leakage of ALT into the bloodstream.

Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) is an enzyme that is present in highest amounts in the liver cells and to a lesser extent the kidney, prostate,and pancreas. It is also found in the epithelial cells of the biliary tract. GGT will be liberated into the bloodstream following cell damage or destruction and/or biliary obstruction. GGT is induced by alcohol and can be elevated following chronic alcohol consumption and in alcoholism. Decreased levels are associated with vitamin B6 and magnesium deficiency.

LDH represents a group of enzymes that are involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Decreased levels of LDH often correspond to hypoglycemia (especially reactive hypoglycemia), pancreatic function, and glucose metabolism. Increased levels are used to evaluate the presence of tissue damage to the cell causing a rupture in the cellular cytoplasm. LDH is found in many of the tissues of the body, especially the heart, liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, brain, red blood cells,and lungs. Damage to any of these tissues will cause an elevated serum LDH level.

The total bilirubin is composed of two forms of bilirubin: Indirect or unconjugated bilirubin, which circulates in the blood on its way to the liver and direct or conjugated bilirubin, which is the form of bilirubin made water-soluble before it is excreted in the bile. An increase in total bilirubin is associated with dysfunction or blockage in the liver, gallbladder, or biliary tree, or red blood cell hemolysis. A decrease in Total Bilirubin is associated with an increase in oxidative stress. 

Direct or conjugated bilirubin is the form of bilirubin that has been made water-soluble in the liver so it can be excreted in the bile. An increase in direct or conjugated bilirubin may be associated with a dysfunction or blockage in the liver, gallbladder, or biliary tree.

Bilirubin is formed from the breakdown of red blood cells. Indirect or unconjugated bilirubin is the protein (albumin) bound form of bilirubin that circulates in the blood on its way to the liver prior to being eliminated from the body in the bile. Elevated levels of indirect or unconjugated bilirubin are usually associated with increased red blood cell destruction. 

 Iron Health 

Serum iron reflects iron that is bound to serum proteins such as transferrin. Serum iron levels will begin to fall somewhere between the depletion of the iron stores and the development of anemia. Increased iron levels are associated with liver dysfunction, conditions of iron overload (hemochromatosis and hemosiderosis), and infections. Decreased iron levels are associated with iron deficiency anemia, hypochlorhydria, and internal bleeding. The degree of iron deficiency is best appreciated with ferritin, TIBC, and % transferrin saturation levels. 

 

Ferritin is the main storage form of iron in the body. Decreased levels are strongly associated with iron deficiency where it is the most sensitive test to detect an iron deficiency. Increased levels are associated with iron overload, an increasing risk of cardiovascular disease, inflammation, and oxidative stress.

Total Iron Binding Capacity is an approximate estimation of the serum transferrin level. Transferrin is the protein that carries most of the iron in the blood. Elevated levels are associated with iron deficiency anemia. Decreased levels of TIBC are associated with possible iron overload or a protein deficiency.

UIBC measures the unsaturated binding capacity of transferrin, the protein that carries iron in the body i.e. UIBC measures levels of transferrin that have not bound to iron. Assessment of UIBC helps to determine iron-deficiency or overload.

 

The % transferrin saturation index is a calculated value that tells how much serum iron is bound to the iron-carrying protein transferrin. A % transferrin saturation value of 15% means that 15% of iron-binding sites of transferrin are being occupied by iron. It is a sensitive screening test for iron deficiency anemia if it is below the optimal range. It is a sign of iron overload or too much iron in the blood if it is above the optimal range.

 Lipids

Cholesterol is a steroid found in every cell of the body and in the plasma. It is an essential component in the structure of the cell membrane where it controls membrane fluidity. It provides the structural backbone for every steroid hormone in the body, which includes adrenal and sex hormones and vitamin D. The myelin sheaths of nerve fibres are derived from cholesterol and the bile salts that emulsify fats are composed of cholesterol. Cholesterol is made in the body by the liver and other organs and from dietary sources. 

 

Serum triglycerides are composed of fatty acid molecules that enter the bloodstream either from the liver or from the diet. Clients that are optimally metabolising their fats and carbohydrates tend to have a triglyceride level about one-half of the total cholesterol level. Levels will be elevated in metabolic syndrome, fatty liver, in clients with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, hypothyroidism, and adrenal dysfunction. Levels will be decreased in liver dysfunction, a diet deficient in fat, and inflammatory processes.

LDL functions to transport cholesterol and other fatty acids from the liver to the peripheral tissues for uptake and metabolism by the cells. It is known as bad cholesterol  because it is thought that this process of bringing cholesterol from the liver to the peripheral tissue increases the risk for atherosclerosis. An increased LDL cholesterol is just one of many independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease. It is also associated with metabolic syndrome, oxidative stress, and fatty liver.

HDL functions to transport cholesterol from the peripheral tissues and vessel walls to the liver for processing and metabolism into bile salts. It is known as “good cholesterol” because it is thought that this process of bringing cholesterol from the peripheral tissue to the liver is protective against atherosclerosis. Decreased HDL is considered atherogenic, increased HDL is considered protective. 

 

Non-HDL cholesterol represents the circulating cholesterol that is not carried by HDL (the protective carrier that collects cholesterol from tissues and blood vessels and transports it back to the liver). An elevated Non-HDL Cholesterol is associated with an increase risk of cardiovascular disease and related events.

The Triglyceride:HDL ratio is determined from serum triglyceride and HDL levels. Increased ratios are associated with increased cardiovascular risk and an increased risk of developing insulin resistance and Type II Diabetes. A decreased ratio is associated with decreased cardiovascular risk and a decreased risk of developing insulin resistance and Type II Diabetes.

VLDL is a lipoprotein formed in the liver to transport endogenous triglycerides, phospholipids, protein, and cholesterol. It serves, from a functional perspective, as an internal lipid transport molecule, moving triglyceride and other lipids from one area of the body to another.

Lipoprotein (a) or Lp(a) is a small dense lipoprotein that carries cholesterol in the blood.Increased blood levels of Lp(a) may be a strong indicator of early cardiovascular disease.There are no known negative effects of levels of Lp(a) at the lower end of the normal reference range. Some individuals may have no detectable Lp(a) in their blood. 

Apolipoprotein A-1 is the major component of HDL Cholesterol. Evaluation of Apo A-1 levels can help determine cardiovascular risk in those with reduced levels of HDL, increased cholesterol and increased triglycerides. Elevated levels of Apolipoprotein A1 are predictive of a lowered incidence of cardiovascular disease.

Apolipoprotein B (also called Apolipoprotein B-100) is a protein constituent of lipoproteins such as VLDL and LDL.

 Thyroid Health 

TSH or thyroid-stimulating hormone is a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary to control the thyroid gland’s production of T4, to store T4, and to release it into the bloodstream. TSH synthesis and secretion is regulated by the release of TRH (Thyroid Releasing Hormone) from the hypothalamus. TSH levels describe the body’s desire for more thyroid hormone (T4 or T3), which is done in relation to the body’s need for energy. A high TSH is the body’s way of saying “we need more thyroid hormone”. A low TSH reflects the body’s low need for thyroid hormone.

T-4 is the major hormone secreted by the thyroid gland. T-4 production and secretion from the thyroid gland are stimulated by the pituitary hormone TSH. Deficiencies of zinc, copper, and vitamins A, B2, B3, B6 and C will cause a decrease in production of T4 by the follicles of the thyroid gland. Most of the T4 in the blood is in the bound form, i.e. bound to proteins in the blood such as thyroid binding globulin.

Free T-4 is the unbound form of T4 in the body. Only about 0.03 – 0.05% of circulating T4 is in the free form. Free T-4 will be elevated in hyperthyroidism and decreased in hypothyroidism.

T-3 is the most active thyroid hormone and is primarily produced from the conversion of thyroxine (T-4) in the peripheral tissue. T-3 is 4 -5 times more metabolically active than T-4. Total T3 reflects the total amount of T3 present in the blood i.e. amount bound to protein and free levels.

T-3 is the most active thyroid hormone and is primarily produced from the conversion of thyroxine (T-4) in the peripheral tissue. Free T3 is the unbound form of T3 measured in the blood. Free T3 represents approximately 10% of circulating T3 in the blood. Free T-3 levels may be elevated with hyperthyroidism and decreased with hypothyroidism.

The T-3 uptake test has nothing to do with actual T-3 levels, as the name might suggest. Increased levels are associated with hyperthyroidism and people on thyroid hormone. Decreased levels are associated with hypothyroidism and deficiencies of iodine and selenium.

The Free Thyroxine Index is a calculated measurement used to determine how much active thyroid hormone (thyroxine/Free T4) is available.

Reverse T-3 is formed from the thyroid hormone T-4 (thyroxine). It is thought to be an inactive form of thyroid hormone that acts as a sort of metabolic brake on the body. High stress and cortisol levels, chronic illness, inflammation, multiple vitamin deficiencies, fasting, yo-yo dieting, poor nutrition, calorie restriction, lack of exercise, and increased alcohol intake can all raise reverse T-3 levels.

The Free T3 to Reverse T3 is used to determine whether there are issues with thyroid hormone conversion. A high or optimal ratio of Free T3 to Reverse T3 isn’t considered clinically significant. A low Free T3 to Reverse T3 is a sign of Thyroid Hormone Conversion Syndrome, a situation where the peripheral conversion of T4 into the more metabolically active T3 is decreased.

Measuring Free T3 (FT3) and Free T4 (FT4) helps assess how much free and active thyroid hormone is available for use. Calculating the ratio of FT3 to FT4 can provide further information about the current thyroid status.

 Inflammation

Fibrinogen is one of the principal blood clotting proteins. It is produced in the liver and liver disease and dysfunction can cause a decrease in the level of circulating fibrinogen. Levels increase with tissue inflammation or tissue destruction. Elevated fibrinogen levels are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, heart attack, and stroke. Fibrinogen levels are often elevated in clients suffering from cancer, especially colon cancer. 

High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (Hs-CRP) is a blood marker that can help indicate the level of chronic inflammation in the body. Increased levels are associated with an increased risk of inflammation, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and diabetes.

Homocysteine is a molecule formed from the incomplete metabolism of the amino acid methionine. Deficiencies in Vitamins B6, B12, and folate cause methionine to be converted into homocysteine. Homocysteine increases the risk of cardiovascular disease by causing damage to the endothelial lining of the arteries, especially in the heart. Increased levels of homocysteine are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke, as well as cancer, depression, and inflammatory bowel disease.Decreased levels of homocysteine are associated with a decrease in the body;s detoxification capacity and an increased risk of oxidative stress. 

The ESR test is based on the fact that certain blood proteins will become altered in inflammatory conditions, causing aggregation of the red blood cells and as such it is a non-specific measure for inflammation in the body. The ESR is useful for determining the level of tissue destruction, inflammation, and is an indication that a disease process is ongoing and must be investigated. 

C-Reactive Protein is a blood marker that can help indicate the level of inflammation in the body. 

 Vitamins & Minerals 

This vitamin D test measures for levels of 25-OH vitamin D to assess vitamin D status. An increased serum vitamin D is usually seen with clients that are supplementing with too much vitamin D. A decreased serum vitamin D is extremely common and is a sign of vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with many disorders including many forms of cancer, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, chronic inflammation, chronic pain, diabetes along with mental health disorders.

Folate functions as a coenzyme in the process of methylation. Along with vitamin B12, folate is essential for DNA synthesis. Low folate intake can result in folate deficiency, which can impair methylation, DNA synthesis, and red blood cell production.

Vitamin B12 is an essential nutrient for DNA synthesis and red blood cell maturation and is also necessary for myelin sheath formation and the maintenance of nerves in the body. Decreased serum B12 levels are associated with a deficiency of B12, insufficient B12 intake in the diet, or malabsorption.

Serum calcium levels, are primarily regulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH) and vitamin D. A low calcium level indicates that calcium regulation is out of balance and not necessarily that the body is deficient of calcium and needs supplementation. Other potential imbalances would need to be investigated – ie Vitamin D, hypochlorhydria, mineral need as a few examples before supplementing. 

Phosphorous levels are regulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH). Plasma levels may be decreased after a high carbohydrate meal or in people with a diet high in refined carbohydrates. Serum phosphorous is a general marker for digestion. Decreased phosphorous levels are associated with hypochlorhydria. 

Magnesium is important for many different enzymatic reactions, including carbohydrate metabolism, protein synthesis, nucleic acid synthesis, and muscular contraction. Magnesium is also needed for energy production and is used by the body in the blood clotting mechanism. An increased serum magnesium is associated with kidney dysfunction and thyroid hypofunction. A decreased magnesium is a common finding with muscle cramps. 

Zinc is a trace mineral that participates in a significant number of metabolic functions and is found throughout the body’s tissues and fluids. Low levels of serum zinc are associated with zinc deficiency. Elevated levels of serum zinc are often seen in people supplementing with zinc. 

The Calcium:Albumin ratio is determined from serum calcium and albumin levels. Elevated levels can be a sign of protein deficiency or protein loss. Decreased levels could indicate a calcium and/or vitamin D insufficiency. 

The Calcium:Phosphorus ratio is determined from the serum calcium and serum phosphorus levels. This ratio is maintained by the parathyroid glands and is also affected by various foods. Foods high in phosphorus and low in calcium tend to disrupt the balance and shift the body toward metabolic acidity, depleting calcium and other minerals and increasing inflammation.

 Hormonal Health (Max & Ultmate Blood Test Only ) 

DHEA is produced primarily from the adrenals and is the most abundant circulating steroid in the human body and influences more than 150 known anabolic (repair) functions throughout the body and brain. It is the precursor for the sex hormones: testosterone, progesterone, and estrogen. Decreased levels are associated with many common age-related conditions, including diseases of the nervous, cardiovascular, and immune systems such as metabolic syndrome, coronary artery disease, osteoporosis, mood disorders and sexual dysfunction

The serum cortisol test is used to identify dysfunction in the adrenal gland such as adrenal hyperfunction or adrenal hypofunction or for monitoring Cushing’s Syndrome, a condition marked by an overproduction of cortisol and Addison’s Disease, a disease in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough cortisol. 

 

Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), also known as somatomedin C, is a hormone that works with growth hormone to promote the normal development of bone, tissue, and lean muscle mass. Production of IGF-1 is stimulated by growth hormone from the pituitary gland. An elevation in IGF-1 can be associated with increased circulating insulin levels related to obesity and excess high simple sugar intake. A decrease in IGF-1 levels are associated with metabolic syndrome, a decrease in bone density, inflammation, a decrease in lean body mass, lipid abnormalities, and adults with abnormally low IGF-1 may present with fatigue and reduced tolerance to exercise. 

 

Male – Estradiol is a minor hormone in men. Estradiol is synthesized from testosterone and androstenedione in men and plays a role in male sex hormone physiology. Low levels of estradiol in men affect bone density and risk of fractures if too low. High levels of estradiol in men are associated with abdominal obesity, an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, insulin sensitivity, and blood sugar dysregulation.

Female – Estradiol (E2) is the most commonly measured estrogens, the others being estrone (E1) and estriol (E3). The serum estradiol level is not specific to any phase of the menstrual cycle. It is a general assessment of estradiol. Low levels of estradiol can be a risk factor for osteoporosis and bone fracture. Estradiol may improve the quality of life in menopausal women. Increased levels of estradiol in women suggest an increased risk of breast or endometrial cancer. 

Male – Testosterone is the primary sex hormone for men. The total testosterone test measures both the testosterone that is bound to serum proteins and the unbound form (free testosterone).In men, total testosterone is useful for assessing gonadal, adrenal, and pituitary function.

Female – The total testosterone test measures both the testosterone that is bound to serum proteins and the unbound form (free testosterone). In women, total testosterone can help in the evaluation of polycystic ovarian syndrome, testosterone-producing tumors of the ovary, tumours of the adrenal cortices, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. 

Male – Testosterone is the primary sex hormone for men. The free testosterone test measures the testosterone that is unbound to serum proteins such as Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) and albumin. Levels of testosterone diminish with age and obesity, especially abdominal obesity. 

Female – The free testosterone test measures the testosterone that is unbound to serum proteins such as Sex Hormone Binding Globulin. In women, free testosterone can help in the evaluation of polycystic ovarian syndrome, testosterone-producing tumors of the ovary, tumours of the adrenal cortices, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

The majority of circulating testosterone is bound to a hormone called Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG). A smaller fraction is also bound to the protein albumin and the remainder circulates as free (unbound) testosterone. All the testosterone that is not bound to SHBG is considered bioavailable. 

Males – Progesterone in the male balances and opposes unopposed estrogen. Unfortunately, as men age, the unopposed estrogen levels tend to rise but there is no increase in progesterone so we get an imbalance in the progesterone:estrogen ratio. Progesterone in males is produced primarily from pregnenolone in the adrenal glands,low pregnenolone levels may be a contributing factor for low progesterone in males. Progesterone in males plays a calming role in the nervous system and activates the GABA chloride channel to help the body shut down physically and mentally for sleep, rest and recovery. Increased levels of DHT are associated with male-pattern baldness and prostate disease.

Females – Progesterone is a steroid hormone mainly formed in the cells of the corpus luteum and during pregnancy in the placenta. Progesterone levels are used in fertility diagnosis for the detection of ovulation and assessment of the luteal phase of menstruation. 

Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) is a protein produced primarily in the liver and to some extent the testes and the brain. SHBG acts as a transport molecule for carrying estrogen and testosterone around the body and delivering them to receptors on the cells. 

 Full Blood Count 

The RBC Count determines the total number of red blood cells or erythrocytes found in a cubic millimeter of blood. The red blood cell functions to carry oxygen from the lungs to the body tissues and to transfer carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs where it is expelled. Increased levels are associated with dehydration, stress, a need for vitamin C and respiratory distress such as asthma. Decreased levels are primarily associated with anemia.

A reticulocyte is a young, immature red blood cell. An increased reticulocyte indicates that increased production of red blood cells is occurring in the bone marrow in response to premature destruction or loss.

Hemoglobin is the oxygen-carrying molecule in red blood cells. Low levels of hemoglobin are associated with anemia. Measuring hemoglobin is useful to determine the cause and type of anemia and for evaluating the efficacy of anemia treatment. Hemoglobin levels may be increased in cases of dehydration.

 

The hematocrit (HCT) measures the percentage of the volume of red blood cells in a known volume of centrifuged blood. It is an integral part of the Complete Blood Count (CBC) or Hematology panel. Elevated levels of hematocrit are associated with dehydration.

The MCV is a measurement of the volume in cubic microns of an average single red blood cell. MCV indicates whether the red blood cell size appears normal (normocytic), small (microcytic), or large (macrocytic). An increase or decrease in MCV can help determine the type of anemia present. An increased MCV is associated with B12, folate, or vitamin C deficiency. A decreased MCV is associated with iron and B6 deficiency. 

The Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH) is a calculated value and is an expression of the average weight of hemoglobin per red blood cell. MCH, along with MCV can be helpful in determining the type of anemia present.

The Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) measures the average concentration of hemoglobin in the red blood cells. It is a calculated value. It is elevated with B12/folate deficiency and hypochlorhydria. Decreased levels are associated with a vitamin C need, vitamin B6 and iron deficiencies, and a heavy metal body burden.

Platelets or thrombocytes are the smallest of the formed elements in the blood. Platelets are necessary for blood clotting, vascular integrity, and vasoconstriction. They form a platelet plug, which plugs up breaks in small vessels. Increased platelets may be seen with atherosclerosis. Decreased levels are associated with oxidative stress, heavy metal body burden and infections.

The Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW) is essentially an indication of the degree of abnormal variation in the size of red blood cells (called anisocytosis). Although the RDW will increase with vitamin BI2 deficiency, folic acid, and iron anemia, it is increased most frequently with vitamin B12 deficiency anemia.

MPV or Mean Platelet Volume is a calculated measurement of the relative size of platelets in the blood. The average size of platelets increases when the body is producing more platelets and as such, the MPV can help in making assessments of platelet production in the bone marrow or platelet destruction. Elevated levels of MPV are seen with platelet destruction. 

 Immune Health 

The total White Blood Cell (WBC) count measures the sum of all the WBCs in the peripheral blood. White Blood Cells fight infection, defend the body through a process called phagocytosis, and produce, transport, and distribute antibodies as part of the immune process.

Neutrophils are the white blood cells used by the body to combat bacterial infections and are the most numerous and important white cell in the body’s reaction to inflammation. Neutrophils – % tells us the % distribution of neutrophils in the total white blood cell count. Levels will be raised in bacterial infections. Decreased levels are often seen in chronic viral infections.

Bands are young non-segmented neutrophils or metamylocytes. Bands are not usually seen in large numbers in the peripheral blood but will increase in acute infections.  

 

Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell. An increase in Lymphocytes – is usually a sign of a viral infection but can also be a sign of increased toxicity in the body or inflammation. Decreased levels are often seen in a chronic viral infection when the body can use up a large number of lymphocytes and oxidative stress.

Monocytes are white blood cells that are the body’s second line of defense against infection. They are phagocytic cells that are capable of movement and remove dead cells, microorganisms, and particulate matter from circulating blood. Levels tend to rise at the recovery phase of an infection or with chronic infection.  

Eosinophils are a type of White Blood Cell, which are often increased in people that are suffering from intestinal parasites or food or environmental sensitivities/allergies. 

Basophils are one of the circulating white blood cells. They constitute a small percentage of the total white blood cell count. Basophils play an important role in the inflammatory process by releasing important substances, such as heparin, to prevent clotting in the inflamed tissue.Basophils will often be increased with tissue inflammation and is often seen with cases of intestinal parasites.

Neutrophils are the white blood cells used by the body to combat bacterial infections and are the most numerous and important white cell in the body’s reaction to inflammation. Neutrophils – Absolute is an actual count of the number of neutrophils in a known volume of blood. Levels will be raised in bacterial infections. Decreased levels are often seen in chronic viral infections. 

Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell. An increase in Lymphocytes – Absolute count is usually a sign of a viral infection but can also be a sign of increased toxicity in the body or inflammation. Decreased levels are often seen in a chronic viral infection when the body can use up a large number of lymphocytes and oxidative stress.

Monocytes are white blood cells that are the body’s second line of defense against infection. They are phagocytic cells that are capable of movement and remove dead cells, microorganisms, and particulate matter from circulating blood. Levels tend to rise at the recovery phase of an infection or with chronic infection. 

Eosinophils are a type of White Blood Cell, which are often increased in clients that are suffering from intestinal parasites or food or environmental sensitivities/allergies.

Basophils are one of the circulating white blood cells. They constitute a small percentage of the total white blood cell count. Basophils play an important role in the inflammatory process by releasing important substances, such as heparin, to prevent clotting in the inflamed tissue. Basophils will often be increased with tissue inflammation and is often seen with cases of intestinal parasites. 

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